Apa Itu Jaringan Epidermis?

Jaringan Epidermis

Jaringan epidermis merupakan jaringan tubuh tumbuhan yang terletak paling luar (Kulit). Jaringan epidermis menutupi seluruh tubuh tumbuhan mulai dari akar, batang, hingga daun. Biasanya epidermis hanya terdiri dari selapis sel yang berbentuk pipih dan rapat. Fungsi jaringan epidermis adalah sebagai pelindung jaringan di dalamnya serta sebagai tempat pertukaran zat. Jaringan epidermis daun terdapat di permukaan atas dan permukaan bawah daun. Jaringan epidermis daun tidak mempunyai kloroplas kecuali pada bagian sel penutup stomata.

Jaringan Epidermis

Epidermis berfungsi sebagai pelindung terhadap hilangnya air karena penguapan (membatasi transpirasi), kerusakan mekanik (misal: diinjak-injak), perubahan temperature dan hilangnya zat-zat makanan (angin, hujan, dan lain-lain). Epidermis biasanya terdiri dari satu lapisan sel, tapi pada beberapa tumbuhan sel protoderm pada daun membelah dengan bidang pembelahan sejajar dengan permukaan (periklinal), dan turunanya membelah lagi sehingga terjadi epidermis berlapis banyak (misalnya: velamen pada akar anggrek). Sebagian besar terdiri dari sesl-sel yang tak terspesialisasi. Bentuk, ukuran susunan sel epidermis berbeda-beda pada berbagai jenis tumbuhan. Tapi semuanya rapat satu sama lain.

Menurut Bagod Sudjadi dan Siti Laila (30 : 2005), jaringan epidermis merupakan lapisan sel yang paling luar pada daun, akar, buah, biji, dan batang. Kata epidermis berasal dari bahasa Yunani (epi = di atas / menutupi; derma = kulit). Jaringan epidermis biasanya terdiri atas deretan sel tunggal yang menutupi dan melindungi semua bagian tumbuhan yang masih muda. Secara umum, fungsi utama jaringan epidermis adalah sebagai pelindung. Namun, sel-sel epidermis sering kali memiliki cirri dan fungsi khusus yang berkaitan dengan fungsi utama organ yang ditutupi. Jaringan epidermis dapat juga berkembang dan mengalami modifikasi menjadi sel rambut akar, sel penutup pada stomata, dan spina. Epidermis, seperti halnya kulit pada tubuh kita, yang merupakan komponen perlindungan pertama untuk melawan kerusakan fisik dan organisme-organisme patogenik.

Pada permukaan atas daun, dinding luar epidermis ada yang membentuk lapisan tebal yang disebut lapisan kutikula misalnya daun keladi dan daun pisang; ada yang berbulu halus misalnya daun durian. Stomata atau mulut daun merupakan modifikasi epidermis yang berfungsi untuk pertukarangas. Jaringan epidermis batang ada yang membentuk lapisan tebal (lapisan kutikula) atau membentuk rambut (trikoma) sebagai alat perlindungan. Jaringan epidermis akar ada yang menjadi rambut akar. Rambut akar berfungsi menyerap air dan garam mineral.


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